Featured articles #11
CHANGING A COURSE FROM LECTURE FORMAT TO COOPERATIVE LEARNING
Dean A. McManus, Professor School of Oceanography
Updated from an article which originally appeared in the Winter 1996 issue of Paideia: Undergraduate Education at the University of Washington. 4(1), 12-16
For almost thirty years I have taught a senior course in marine geology.
Although I have
revised it over the years, it has always been a lecture course. Fall Quarter 1994, I
substantially changed my approach: I gave only three lectures and three demonstrations the
entire quarter. Students learned primarily through cooperative assignments and individual
COOPERATIVE/COLLABORATIVE STRUCTURES EXPLICITLY DESIGNED TO PROMOTE POSITIVE INTERDEPENDENCE AMONG GROUP MEMBERS by Joe Cuseo
Positive interdependence is the quintessential quality that
defines collaboration and transforms group work into teamwork. It is a
key feature that has been emphasized by scholars concerned primarily with
promoting students' academic achievement and cognitive development (Slavin,
1983; Johnson & Johnson, 1987), as well as scholars concerned with
students' holistic development, such as Chickering (1969)-who argues that,
in its highest form, the development of autonomy does not simply involve
the development of freedom to choose freely and act independent of outside
influences, but also involves the development of freedom that recognizes
one's dependence and obligations to others. The following are some single-step
strategies that may be used to promote positive interdependence among students
working in groups.
TIPS FOR GRADING GROUP WORK By Kathleen McKinney
RESEARCH FOR THE FUTURE: RESEARCH ON COOPERATIVE LEARNING AND ACHIEVEMENT:
WHAT WE KNOW, WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW.
Slavin, R.E. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1996, 21 (1), 43-69.
This paper is adapted from Slavin, 1992. It was written under a grant
from the Office of
Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education (No.
OERI-R-117-D40005). However, any opinions expressed are mine and do not necessarily
represent OERI positions or policies.
Research on cooperative learning is one of the greatest success stories
in the history of
educational research. While there was some research on this topic from the early days of this
century, the amount and quality of that research greatly accelerated in the early 1970's, and
continues unabated today, a quarter-century later. Hundreds of studies have compared
cooperative learning to various control methods on a broad range of measures, but by far the most frequent objective of this research is to determine the effects of cooperative learning on student achievement.
Given the substantial body of research on cooperative learning and
the many cooperative learning programs in widespread use, it might be assumed
that there is little further research to be done. Yet this is not the case.
There are many very important questions in research on this topic, and
a great deal of development and evaluation remains to be done. In its fullest
conception cooperative learning provides a radically different approach
to instruction, whose possibilities have been tapped only on a limited
COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN TECHNICAL COURSES: PROCEDURES, PITFALLS,
by Richard M. Felder and RebeccaBrent
Featured articles #3
COOPERATIVE LEARNING: INCREASING COLLEGE FACULTY INSTRUCTIONAL PRODUCTIVITY
The use of active learning strategies, such as cooperative learning, is
growing at a remarkable rate. Professors are incorporating cooperative
learning to increase students' achievement, create positive relationships
among students, and promote students' healthy psychological adjustment
to school. This monograph is about how college faculty can ensure that
students actively create their knowledge rather than passively listening
to the professor's. It is about structuring learning situations cooperatively
at the college level so that students work together to achieve shared goals.
by David W. Johnson and Others
COOPERATIVE LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT Assessing, Evaluating, And Reporting
Student Learning Assessment is the collection of data to make a judgment.
Evaluation is the rendering of a judgment based on merit. Reporting is
the communication of the results of assessment and evaluation to interested
audiences. Cooperative learning groups can enhance and at times are required
for assessment, evaluation, and reporting--particularly when performance,
authentic, or total quality assessment is employed.
Featured articles #4
WAYS TO ENCOURAGE COLLABORATIVE TEACHING IN HIGHER EDUCATION T. Panitz & P.Panitz, pp161-202 in University Teaching: International Perspectives, James J.F. Forest edition, 1998, Garland Publishers: New York http://home.capecod.net/~tpanitz/tedsarticles/encouragingcl.htm
THE JIGSAW CLASSROOM by Elliot Aronson, Welcome to the official web site of the jigsaw classroom, a cooperative learning technique that reduces racial conflict among school children, promotes better learning, improves student motivation, and increases enjoyment of the learning experience. The jigsaw technique was first developed in the early 1970s by Elliot Aronson and his students at the University of Texas and the University of California. http://www.jigsaw.org/
COOPERATIVE LEARNING AND SOCIAL INTERDEPENDENCE THEORY by David W.
Johnson and Roger T. Johnson, One of social psychology's great success
stories is the widespread use of cooperative learning. From being virtually
unknown 30 years ago, cooperative learning is now a standard educational
practice in almost every elementary and secondary school and many colleges
and universities in the United States, Canada and a variety of other countries.
To understand how social psychological theory and research has revolutionized
teaching practices, it is first necessary to understand what cooperative
Featured articles #5
THE EVOLUTION OF A BIOLOGY COURSE: FROM STUDENT PASSIVITY TO STUDENT ACCOUNTABILITY Judy Moore and Eric Mould
When two instructors who had been lecturing in multiple sections
of introductory biology felt themselves going stale, they redesigned their
curriculum so that students learned actively through collaborative group
work. In this article, they describe the process of transforming the class
to a more student-centered format, and describe the ways they built in
assessment activities. Data show increased retention and better grades
for students who experience the new, collaborative approach.
USING COOPERATIVE LEARNING 100% OF THE TIME IN MATHEMATICS CLASSES
ESTABLISHES A STUDENT-CENTERED, INTERACTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
College teachers continue to deal with mathematics curriculum reform
in order to make mathematics more relevant and meaningful for students,
encourage students to think critically, and make the process of learning
mathematics more student centered and interactive. AMATYC has established
a set of standards for mathematics education before Calculus. The AMATYC
Standards (Cohen1995) include a number of references for the need for learner
centered approaches, such as cooperative learning paradigms, in mathematics
education. The Standards, however, do not prescribe specific methods for
implementation of cooperative learning paradigms. This article attempts
to fill the gap by describing one approach to implementing cooperative
learning in mathematics classes, virtually 100% of the time. By describing
this maximum approach it is hoped that teachers will be encouraged to try
cooperative learning at least part of the time in their classes.
Featured articles #6
MEASURING THE SUCCESS OF SMALL GROUP LEARNING
IN COLLEGE-LEVEL SMET TEACHING: A META ANALYSIS
Leonard Springer National Institute for Science Education Wisconsin Center for Education Research
University of Wisconsin-Madison Lspringe@facstaff.wisc.edu
Mary Elizabeth Stanne University of Minnesota, Samuel Donovan University of Wisconsin-Madison
Student collaboration in college SMET
courses and programs is aimed at enhancing the preparation of students
for collaboration in SMET professions and at giving all students a better
sense of how scientists and engineers work. An American Association for
the Advancement of Science report advises that "the collaborative nature
of scientific and technological work should be strongly reinforced by frequent
group activity in the classroom.
TEN TECHNIQUES FOR ENERGIZING YOUR CLASSROOM
From the Grand Rapids Community College Center for Teaching and Learning. The CTL mission is to provide leadership and support in assisting Grand Rapids Community College to understand and utilize the most advanced theories and practices in teaching and learning.
END ON A HIGH NOTE: BETTER ENDINGS FOR CLASSES AND COURSES, College
Teaching, Fall 1996
Mark H. Maier- Department of Economics Glendale College Glendale, CA 91208
Ted Panitz- Department of Mathematics Cape Cod Community College West Barnstable, MA 02668
Many teachers carefully craft the beginning of a course and the start
of each class session. However, often these
same classes and courses end on a disappointing note. Typically, at the end of class students shuffle papers while
the instructor rushes to summarize the day's work. Similar discord occurs at the end of the course when students slink out of the room after a final exam, often deliberately avoiding any farewell exchange with the instructor. Based on this literature and a discussion we initiated through on-line computer mailing lists and in The Teaching Professor (1995a, 1995b), we have assembled a large number of ideas For ending classes and course
Featured articles #7
WHAT IS THE COLLABORATIVE CLASSROOM?
M.B. Tinzmann, B.F. Jones, T.F. Fennimore, J. Bakker, C. Fine, and J. Pierce NCREL, Oak Brook, 1990
New Learning and Thinking Curricula Require Collaboration In Guidebook
1, we explored a "new" vision of learning and suggested four characteristics
of successful learners: They are knowledgeable, self-determined strategic,
and empathetic thinkers. Research indicates successful learning also involves
an interaction of the learner, the materials, the teacher, and the context.
Applying this research, new guidelines in the major content areas stress
thinking. Guidebook 2 describes these new guidelines and provides four
characteristics of "a thinking curriculum" that cut across content areas.
The chief characteristic of a thinking curriculum is the dual agenda of
content and process for all students. Characteristics that derive from
this agenda include in-depth learning; involving students in real-world,
relevant tasks; engaging students in holistic tasks from kindergarten through
high school; and utilizing students' prior knowledge.
TEACHING RESOURCES: IDEAS ON COOPERATIVE LEARNING AND THE USE OF
Howard Community College's Teaching Resources
What are some class activities that use cooperative learning?
Class Discussion | Panel Discussion | Debate Discussion | Student Centered Discussions | Developmental Discussion | The Inner Circle (The Fishbowl Technique)! Leaderless Small Group Discussions | Buzz Groups | Circle of Knowledge or Round robin or Roundtable | Brainstorming | Case Studies | Group Retellings | Cooperative Learning - Pairs | Research Grouping | Cooperative Teaching | Jigsaw Method | Jigsaw II | Numbered Heads | Interview | Paraphrase Passport | Think-Pair-Share | Partners | Grades and Groups |
101 THINGS YOU CAN DO THE FIRST THREE WEEKS OF CLASS
by Joyce Povlacs Lunde
Beginnings are important. Whether it is a large introductory course for freshmen or an advanced course in the major field, it makes good sense to start the semester off well. Students will decide very early--some say the first day of class--whether they will like the course, its contents, the teacher, and their fellow students.
The following list is offered in the spirit of starting off
right. It is a catalog of suggestions for college teachers who are looking
for fresh ways of creating the best possible environment for learning.
Not just the first day, but the first three weeks of a course are
especially important, studies say, in retaining capable students. Even if the syllabus is printed and lecture notes are ready to go in August, most college teachers can usually make adjustments in teaching methods as the course unfolds and the characteristics of their students become known.
Featured articles #8
CLUME: COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN UNDERGRADUATE
Spencer Kagan has developed various cooperative structures including roundtable, numbered heads together, and pairs check. Much of the material in this page is based on the work of Neil Davidson, edited by Janet Ray and Barbara E.Reynolds.
Introduction-How to use these strategies-
In this paper we present a variety of simple techniques for promoting cooperative activities in the classroom. The strategies are at once flexible and amenable to myriad variations -- qualities that allow them to adapt well to a variety of physical settings, class sizes, intentions, and time periods. Since many are relatively structured activities, they are good beginning steps for students (and faculty) whose experience with cooperative learning is limited.
COOPERATIVE LEARNING RESPONSE TO DIVERSITY
California Department of Education
Dedicated teachers are always looking for better
for meeting the many challenges they face in school, especially as diversity
increases in the student population. Cooperative learning methods provide
teachers with effective ways to respond to diverse students by promoting
academic achievement and cross-cultural understanding.
COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL:
Maximizing Language Acquisition, Academic Achievement, and Social Development
NCBE Program Information Guide Series, Number 12, Summer 1991
Daniel D. Holt; Barbara Chips; Diane Wallace
Students in American classrooms are becoming increasingly culturally and linguistically diverse. In addition, secondary school students have distinct educational needs from those of elementary school students. Students who are in the process of acquiring English as their second language face the challenge of succeeding in demanding academic subjects in classrooms designed for native speakers of English. In addition, secondary school students have only a short time in which to meet the English language proficiency and academic goals needed to graduate from high school. Some of these needs can be met by cooperative learning structures and activities used in the content areas. These structures and activities can help maximize the rate at which secondary students acquire the English language, content area knowledge, and interpersonal skills needed for success in school. When we combine what we know about cooperative learning structures with what we know about what works for language minority students, we can more effectively meet the
needs of these students.
THE EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING METHODS ON ACHIEVEMENT, RETENTION, AND ATTITUDES OF HOME ECONOMICS STUDENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA Rosini B. Abu, Jabatan Pendidikan, Jim Flowers
The purpose of this study was to determine
the effects of the cooperative learning
approach of Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) on the achievement of
content knowledge, retention, and attitudes toward the teaching method.
Featured articles #9
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA TEACHING RESOURCE CENTER-
This site have a wealth of teaching tips presented in short descriptions. Topics include:
Cooperative learning/Groups, Classroom assessment techniques, Critical thinking, Discussion, Engaging students, Lecturing, to name a few.
COOPERATIVE/COLLABORATIVE STRUCTURES EXPLICITLY DESIGNED TO PROMOTE
POSITIVE INTERDEPENDENCE AMONG GROUP MEMBERS
by Joe Cuseo
Positive interdependence is the quintessential quality that defines collaboration and transforms group work into teamwork. It is a key feature that has been emphasized by scholars concerned primarily with promoting students' academic achievement and cognitive development (Slavin, 1983; Johnson & Johnson, 1987), as well as scholars concerned with students' holistic development, such as Chickering (1969)-who argues that, in its highest form, the development of autonomy does not simply involve the development of freedom to choose freely and act independent of outside influences, but also involves the development of freedom that recognizes one's dependence and obligations to others. The following are some single-step strategies that may be used to promote positive interdependence among students working in groups.
METHODS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING: WHAT WE CAN PROVE WORKS
Cooperative Learning Methods: A Meta-Analysis
David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson, and Mary Beth Stanne- University of Minnesota
Cooperative learning is one of the most widespread and fruitful areas of theory, research, and practice in education. Reviews of the research, however, have focused either on the entire literature which includes research conducted in non-educational settings or have included only a partial set of studies that may or may not validly represent the whole literature. There has never been a comprehensive review of the research on the effectiveness in increasing achievement of the methods of cooperative learning used in schools. An extensive search found 164 studies investigating eight cooperative learning methods. The studies yielded 194 independent effect sizes representing academic achievement. All eight cooperative learning methods had a significant positive impact on student achievement. When the impact of cooperative learning was compared with competitive learning, Learning Together (LT) promoted the greatest effect, followed by Academic Controversy (AC), Student-Team-Achievement-Divisions (STAD), Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT), Group Investigation (GI), Jigsaw, Teams-Assisted-Individualization (TAI), and finally Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC). When the impact of cooperative lessons was compared with individualistic learning, LT promotes the greatest effect, followed by AC, GI, TGT, TAI, STAD, Jigsaw, and CIRC. The consistency of the results and the diversity of the cooperative learning methods provide strong validation for its effectiveness.
Features articles #10
ACTIVE LEARNING FOR THE COLLEGE CLASSROOM
Donald R. Paulson- Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, L.A.
Jennifer L. Faust, Department of Philosophy, California State University, L.A.
The past decade has seen an explosion of interest among college faculty
in the teaching methods variously grouped under the terms 'active learning'
and 'cooperative learning'. However, even with this interest, there remains
much misunderstanding of and mistrust of the pedagogical "movement" behind
the words. The majority of all college faculty still teach their classes
in the traditional lecture mode. Some of the criticism and hesitation seems
to originate in the idea that techniques of active and cooperative learning
are genuine alternatives to, rather than enhancements of, professors' lectures.
We provide below a survey of a wide variety of active learning techniques
that can be used to supplement rather than replace lectures. We are not
advocating complete abandonment of
lecturing, as both of us still lecture about half of the class period. The lecture is a very efficient way to present information but use of the lecture as the only mode of instruction presents problems for both the instructor and the students. There is a large amount of research attesting to the benefits of active learning.
CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING DESIGN
by George W. Gagnon, Jr. and Michelle Collay
This paper represents a collaborative effort of two teacher educators
a constructivist approach to "designing for learning" rather than planning for
teaching. See our Constructivist Learning Design Notes for a simplified
version. Ongoing collaborative research with teachers is presented in our
Constructivist Learning Design Study. We believe this focus on learning is
needed if teachers are to implement a constructive approach to thinking about
day-to-day learning by the students. Conventional lesson planning focuses on
what the teacher will do. If learning is teacher directed, then the focus of the
lesson plan is on what the teacher does. When designing a learning experience for
students, teachers focus on what students will do. Our language encourages
teachers to focus on thinking about how to organize what learners will do rather
than plan their teaching behaviors.
COOPRATIVE LEARNING RESOURCES: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
by James Cooper and Pamela Robinson
In their introduction the authors describe and give brief answers to commonly-asked questions concerning small-group instruction. The first question addresses differences between cooperative learning and other forms of small group instruction such as collaborative learning. The second relates to research and theory relating to cooperative learning in higher education, especially as the technique applies to science, mathematics, engineering and technology. The third question concerns to sources for addressing
applications of cooperative learning, particularly in SMET disciplines. For each question, the authors identify resources in the bibliography which provide additional information for those seeking more detailed and sophisticated responses.
This content is taken from materials presented at The University of Tennessee at
Chattanooga Instructional Excellence Retreat, May 1996. Barbara J. Millis, PhD, Associate Director for Faculty Development, United States Air Force Academy, Facilitator
Why Cooperative Learning?
Cooperative Learning Structures and Techniques
Structured Learning Team Group Roles
Double Entry Journal
Guided Reciprocal Peer Questioning
Cooperative Learning References
NAVIGATING THE BUMPY ROAD TO STUDENT-CENTERED INSTRUCTION
Richard M. Felder and Rebecca Brent
Authors' note: An abridged version of this paper was published in College Teaching, 44, 43-47 (1996).
The enthusiasts may be in for a rude shock. It's not that SCI doesn't
work when done correctly-it does, as both the literature and our personal
experience in two strikingly different disciplines richly attest. The problem
is that while the promised benefits are real, they are neither immediate
nor automatic. The students, whose teachers have been telling them everything
they needed to know from the first grade on, don't necessarily appreciate
having this support suddenly withdrawn. Some students view the approach
as a threat or as some kind of game, and a few may become sullen or hostile
when they find they have no choice about playing. When confronted with
a need to take more responsibility for their own learning, they may grouse
that they are paying tuition-or their
parents are paying taxes-to be taught, not to teach themselves. If cooperative learning is a feature of the instruction, they may gripe loudly and bitterly about other team members not pulling their weight or about having to waste time explaining everything to slower teammates. Good lecturers may feel awkward when they start using student-centered methods and their course-end ratings may initially drop. It's tempting for instructors to give up in the face of all that, and many unfortunately do.